Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev has said new sanctions imposed by the US are tantamount to declaring a “full-scale trade war” against Moscow.
He said the measures, signed by Donald Trump, demonstrated the complete impotence of the US president, who he said had been humiliated by Congress.
The law aims to punish Russia for its alleged meddling in the 2016 US elections and its actions in Ukraine.
Mr Trump accused Congress of overreach on the legislation.
In signing the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act on Wednesday, he attached a statement calling the measure “deeply flawed”.
The legislation limits the amount of money Americans can invest in Russian energy projects, and makes it more difficult for US companies to do business with Russia.
It also imposes sanctions on Iran and North Korea.
Iran said the new sanctions violated the nuclear deal and it would respond in an “appropriate and proportional” manner, reports the semi-official Isna news agency.
North Korea has so far made no public comments on the US move.